What is OPS in Baseball

Have you ever watched a baseball game and heard the term “OPS” thrown around, confusing you?  Don’t worry; you’re not alone.

This seemingly mystical acronym is a crucial element in baseball’s complex, statistics-driven world.

“OPS” stands for On-base Plus Slugging, a formula used to measure a baseball player’s total offensive worth. It combines two vital stats: a player’s ability to get on base (On-Base Percentage, or OBP) and their ability to hit for power (Slugging Percentage, or SLG).

It’s the ultimate metric for evaluating a player’s batting performance, giving us a comprehensive snapshot of their offensive prowess.

So, next time you hear “OPS,” think of it as the baseball equivalent of a report card, telling us how well a player performs at the plate.

What is OPS, and How Do You Calculate It?

On-base Plus Slugging (OPS) is a statistic in baseball that combines a player’s On-base Percentage (OBP) and Slugging Percentage (SLG). It is used to measure a player’s overall offensive performance.

The ability of a player both to get on base and to hit for power, two important offensive skills, are represented in this statistic.

To calculate OPS, you add a player’s OBP and SLG:


OBP measures how often a player reaches base per plate appearance, including hits, walks, and hit-by-pitches.

SLG measures the bases a player records per at-bat, giving more weight to extra-base hits such as doubles and home runs.

An OPS of .800 or higher in Major League Baseball puts the player in the upper echelon of hitters. Typically, the league leader in OPS will score near, and sometimes above, the 1.000 mark.

The best career OPS in baseball history is Babe Ruth, who had an OPS of 1.164 at his retirement.

In the intricate world of baseball, understanding specific terms and statistics can enhance your appreciation of the game. One such term is “BB in Baseball,” which stands for base on balls, also known as a walk.

This occurs when a batter receives four pitches outside the strike zone, allowing them to advance to first base without the risk of being put out.

What is the On-Base Percentage (OBP)?

The OBP measures how often a player reaches base for any reason other than errors or fielder’s choices. It’s calculated with the formula:

  • OBP = (Hits + Walks + Hit by Pitch) / (At Bats + Walks + Hit by Pitch + Sacrifice Flies)

Each element in the formula represents a different way a player can reach base safely. ‘Hits’ are when the batter successfully reaches base after hitting the ball into fair territory. ‘Walks’ or ‘Base on Balls’ happen when a batter receives four pitches outside the strike zone during his turn at bat.

‘Hit by Pitch’ occurs when a pitch hits the batter, granting him first base. ‘At Bats’ counts the number of times a player comes to bat. ‘Sacrifice Flies’ are when a batter hits the ball to the outfield, allowing a teammate to score, but is himself put out.

What is the Slugging Percentage?

Slugging percentage is a statistic in baseball that measures a batter’s ability to hit for power. It is calculated by dividing the total bases a player has earned by their total at-bats.

The total bases are calculated as the sum of singles, doubles (multiplied by 2), triples (multiplied by 3), and home runs (multiplied by 4).

Despite its name, slugging percentage is not a percentage but an average of bases reached per at-bat. It is usually expressed as a decimal to three decimal places and is generally spoken as if multiplied by 1000.

For example, a slugging percentage of .589 would be “five eighty-nine”.

The slugging percentage gives more weight to extra-base hits, such as doubles and home runs, than singles. Plate appearances resulting in walks, hit-by-pitches, catcher interference, and sacrifice bunts or flies are specifically excluded from this calculation.

In Major League Baseball, the average slugging percentage among all teams in 2019 was .435.

The maximum possible slugging percentage is 4.000, which would mean a player hit a home run every at-bat, but no player in the history of MLB has ever retired with a 4.000 slugging percentage.

The record for the highest career slugging percentage is held by Babe Ruth, who had a slugging percentage of .6897.

Another crucial statistic in baseball is “RBI in Baseball,” standing for Runs Batted In. It represents the number of runs a batter contributes to his team by hitting the ball, allowing a runner to score, including himself if he hits a home run. RBIs are a key indicator of a player’s effectiveness and clutch performance in generating runs.

Calculating OPS

On-base Plus Slugging (OPS) is a baseball statistic that combines a player’s On-base Percentage (OBP) and Slugging Percentage (SLG). It is used to measure a player’s overall offensive performance.

To calculate OPS, you first need to calculate OBP and SLG.

  1. On-base Percentage (OBP): This measures how often a batter reaches base. It is calculated using the following formula:



  • H = Hits
  • BB = Bases on Balls (Walks)
  • HBP = Hit By Pitch
  • AB = At Bats
  • SF = Sacrifice Flies.
  1. Slugging Percentage (SLG): This measures a hitter’s power by considering the total bases a player records per at-bat. It is calculated using the following formula:



  • 1B, 2B, 3B, and HR are the number of singles, doubles, triples, and home runs, respectively
  • AB = At Bats.

Once you have calculated both OBP and SLG, you can calculate OPS by adding the two: OPS=OBP+SLG.

For example, if a player has an OBP of .350 and a SLG of .500, their OPS would be .850. An OPS of .800 or higher in Major League Baseball puts the player in the upper echelon of hitters.

Why is OPS Important in Baseball?

You may be wondering why OPS is so important in baseball. Well, let’s break it down. OPS, which stands for On-base Plus Slugging, measures a player’s ability to get on base and hit for power.

It’s a valuable statistic because it combines two key aspects of offensive production into a single number. This allows for a more comprehensive understanding of a player’s offensive capabilities.

Here are a few reasons why OPS is an essential statistic in baseball:

  • Combines On-base and Slugging: OPS is the sum of a player’s on-base percentage (how often they reach base) and slugging percentage (how many bases they acquire per bat). It rewards players who both get on base frequently and hit for power.
  • Helps Assess Player Performance: Teams can get a quick snapshot of a player’s offensive performance using OPS. It provides a more comprehensive view than traditional stats, like batting average.
  • Useful for Comparison: OPS is an excellent tool for comparing players. It allows us to see who’s contributing more to their team’s offensive production.
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Consider this – a player with a high OPS is likely to score runs, drive in runs, and generally create offensive opportunities for their team. Therefore, the higher a player’s OPS, the more valuable they are to their team’s offense.

“OPS is a fantastic tool for evaluating a player’s offensive production. It gives a well-rounded look at on-base ability and power hitting, two crucial aspects of the game.” – Anonymous Baseball Analyst

However, it’s important to note that, like any statistic, OPS isn’t perfect. It doesn’t account for base running, fielding ability, or clutch hitting.

Therefore, while OPS is a highly useful tool for assessing a player’s offensive impact, it should be used with other statistics for a complete analysis.

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These seats are usually more expensive but provide a more immersive and comfortable experience, making them highly sought after by enthusiasts wanting to get closer to their favorite players and the excitement.

OPS Versus Batting Average: What’s the Difference?

As a baseball enthusiast, you’re probably familiar with the term ‘batting average.’ It’s a traditional statistic, representing a player’s hits divided by their at-bats.

However, you might wonder how OPS, or On-base Plus Slugging, differs from this well-known metric. Let’s break it down.

The critical difference between OPS and batting average is what they measure. While batting average only considers hits, OPS provides a more comprehensive view of a player’s performance at the plate.

It combines two crucial metrics – on-base percentage (OBP) and slugging percentage (SLG).

  • On-base percentage (OBP): This metric includes hits, walks, and hit-by-pitches, recognizing any way a player can reach base. By including these elements, OBP gives a more accurate picture of players’ ability to avoid making outs.
  • Slugging percentage (SLG): Conversely, SLG measures the number of bases a player achieves per at-bat, considering singles, doubles, triples, and home runs. It gives an insight into a player’s hitting power.

Therefore, OPS is a more comprehensive and balanced metric, capturing a player’s ability to get on base (OBP) and their power at the plate (SLG). It’s calculated by adding a player’s OBP and SLG.

  • Note: Higher OPS values typically indicate a more potent offensive player. An OPS over 1.000 is considered outstanding, while an OPS under .700 is generally considered below average.

Compared to batting average, OPS offers a more holistic view of a player’s offensive prowess. While the batting average only accounts for hits, OPS includes walks, hit-by-pitches, and the potency of hits, painting a more detailed picture of a player’s performance.

The Origins and Evolution of OPS in Baseball

OPS has a fascinating history in baseball, evolving to become a key statistic for evaluating a player’s offensive performance.

So, what is the story behind this essential metric?

The term ‘OPS’ stands for ‘On-base Plus Slugging,’ a combination of two critical statistics in baseball: the on-base percentage (OBP) and the slugging percentage (SLG).

Combining these two metrics into a single number was not always popular or even considered. It took years for the baseball community to recognize the value of OPS.

In the early days of baseball, the primary focus was on batting average (BA) as the sole measure of a player’s offensive capabilities. But as time passed, savvy analysts realized that BA didn’t tell the whole story.

Some players could get on base often or hit the ball far, even if their batting average was lower. This led to the development of OBP and SLG as separate metrics.

OBP measures how often a player reaches base, while SLG measures how far a player can hit the ball on average.

However, it wasn’t until the 1980s that a baseball manager named Bill James started experimenting with combining OBP and SLG into a single number.

He posited that OPS could provide a more comprehensive picture of a player’s offensive prowess. Thus, OPS was born.

Over the years, OPS has grown in popularity and is now widely used throughout Major League Baseball and other leagues worldwide.

It’s considered one of the most reliable measures of a player’s offensive value, balancing the ability to get on base and hit the ball hard and far.

Let’s take a brief look at its evolution:

  1. The 1800s: Baseball focused on batting average as the primary offensive statistic.
  2. Early 20th century: On-base and slugging percentages were introduced as separate metrics.
  3. 1980s: Bill James combined OBP and SLG into OPS, providing a more comprehensive measure of offensive performance.
  4. Present day: OPS is widely used and accepted in modern baseball analytics.

So, when you’re watching the next baseball game and hear the commentators discussing OPS, you’ll know exactly what they’re talking about — and its intriguing history.

The Top 10 Players With the Best OPS in Baseball History

As a devoted baseball fan, you’ve probably heard about OPS, which is short for On-base Plus Slugging. This statistic gives us a comprehensive view of a player’s ability to reach base and hit for power.

It’s fascinating to look back on the annals of baseball history and see the players who excelled in this area.

So, without further ado, let’s dive into the top 10 players with the best OPS in baseball history.

  1. Babe Ruth: With an OPS of 1.164, Ruth is the all-time leader. His combination of power and patience at the plate was truly unprecedented.
  2. Ted Williams: The “Splendid Splinter” ranks second with an OPS of 1.116. He was renowned for his keen eye and impressive power.
  3. Lou Gehrig: Gehrig holds an impressive OPS of 1.079. His consistent performance made him one of the most reliable hitters in history.
  4. Barry Bonds: Bonds, with an OPS of 1.051, was a dominant force at the plate throughout his career.
  5. Jimmie Foxx: With an OPS of 1.038, Foxx was one of the most potent hitters during the 1930s and 1940s.
  6. Hank Greenberg: Known for his towering home runs, Greenberg posted an OPS of 1.017.
  7. Rogers Hornsby: Hornsby, one of the finest right-handed hitters in baseball history, achieved an OPS of 1.010.
  8. Mickey Mantle: Mantle, known for his switch-hitting prowess, earned an OPS of 0.977.
  9. Joe DiMaggio: DiMaggio, with his combination of power and elegance, managed an OPS of 0.977.
  10. Willie Mays: Rounding out the list is Mays, whose OPS stands at 0.941.

These players represent the pinnacle of baseball performance. Their ability to get on base and hit for power was unmatched, resulting in their superior OPS scores.

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Whether you’re a casual fan, a budding player, or a seasoned expert, appreciating these all-time greats can deepen your understanding and love for the game.

Can OPS Be Used to Predict a Player’s Future Performance?

Yes, indeed! OPS can be a useful tool in predicting a player’s future performance in baseball. To understand how, let’s delve into the details.

OPS, the abbreviation for On-Base Plus Slugging, is a composite baseball statistic that combines a player’s ability to get on base (Base Percentage or OBP) with their ability to hit for power (Slugging Percentage or SLG).

In essence, the higher a player’s OPS, the more effective they are at contributing to their team’s offensive success.

A player with a high OPS is typically a valuable asset for their team, as they get on base often and can hit the ball far, thus advancing runners and increasing the chances of scoring runs.

But can it predict future performance? Let’s see.

Though no single statistic is infallible, OPS is considered a reliable predictor of a player’s future offensive output.

Here’s why:

  • Consistency: OPS tends to be a relatively consistent statistic for individual players over time. A player with a high OPS one season will likely have a high OPS the next season, barring injury or other major changes.
  • Comprehensive: Since OPS combines two crucial aspects of hitting (getting on base and hitting for power), it provides a more comprehensive look at a player’s offensive ability than either statistic alone.
  • Reflective of Modern Baseball: Modern baseball emphasizes getting on base and hitting for power, making OPS an increasingly relevant statistic.

However, like any statistic, OPS isn’t flawless. It doesn’t account for a player’s speed, defensive ability, or performance in high-pressure situations.

Plus, it’s worth noting that the predictive power of OPS can be influenced by factors such as a player’s age, home ballpark, and the quality of their teammates.

In conclusion, while OPS is a valuable tool in predicting a player’s future offensive performance, it should be used with other statistics for a more complete picture.

The Impact of OPS on Team Strategy and Lineup Decisions

Imagine you’re a baseball team’s manager, diligently analyzing data to craft the perfect batting lineup. One statistic that can greatly guide your decisions is the OPS (On-base Plus Slugging) value.

This powerful metric helps identify players who can effectively get on base and hit for power, impacting your strategic decisions significantly.

OPS combines a player’s ability to get on base (OBP, On-Base Percentage) and power hitting (SLG, Slugging Percentage).

A high OPS usually indicates a well-rounded offensive player. You can structure your lineup to maximize scoring opportunities using this pivotal metric.

OPS and Lineup Construction

While deciding on the batting order, OPS can be a critical factor. Traditionally, the player with the highest OPS is placed third.

This position is often reserved for the team’s best hitter, as it provides maximum chances to drive runs in. Traditionally, the cleanup or fourth spot goes to the player with the next highest OPS.

Players with a high OBP are typically placed in the leadoff position. Their ability to reach base consistently makes them ideal to set up scoring opportunities for the players following in the lineup.

If a player has a high SLG but a low OBP, they may be placed lower in the order, where their power can still be leveraged.

OPS and Strategic Decisions

OPS can also influence other strategic decisions, such as when to pinch-hit or how to target certain pitchers.

For instance, a player with a high OPS against a specific pitcher might be chosen to pinch-hit, even if their overall OPS is not stellar.

Moreover, understanding a pitcher’s OPS can help determine which hitters to prioritize in the lineup. If a pitcher struggles against left-handed hitters, prioritizing left-handed hitters with high OPS values can provide a strategic advantage.

The Pros and Cons of Using OPS as a Statistic in Baseball

As with any measurement, OPS (On-base Plus Slugging) in baseball has advantages and disadvantages.

Let’s look deeper into these to understand better why and how it’s used to evaluate player performance.


  • Comprehensive: OPS is a comprehensive metric as it considers a player’s ability to get on base (On-base percentage) and their ability to hit for power (Slugging percentage).
  • Easy to Calculate: The formula for OPS is simple – just the sum of a player’s on-base percentage and slugging percentage. This simplicity makes it accessible to even casual fans.
  • Correlation with Team Success: Research shows a strong correlation between team OPS and runs scored, ultimately affecting the team’s success.


  • Unequal Weight: By adding on-base and slugging percentages, OPS assumes these two metrics are equally important, which may not always be true. Some argue that the on-base percentage should be valued more as it often contributes more to running production.
  • Lack of Context: OPS doesn’t consider situational factors such as the score or inning. It doesn’t differentiate between a home run in a blowout game and a clutch single in a tight contest.
  • Doesn’t Include All Aspects of Offense: OPS ignores elements like base running and the ability to avoid double plays, which can also contribute to a team’s offensive success.

How to Improve Your OPS as a Baseball Player

As a baseball player, you may wonder how to improve your On-base Plus Slugging (OPS). OPS is a key statistic that combines a player’s ability to get on base and their power at the plate.

If you want to boost your performance in these areas, here are some strategies you can consider.

Focus on Plate Discipline

Improving your plate discipline is critical in boosting your On-base Percentage (OBP), a key component of OPS.

This means making smart decisions about when to swing and hold back. Focus on avoiding strikes and drawing walks whenever possible.

Strengthen Your Swing

Slugging Percentage (SLG), the other component of OPS, measures your total bases earned per at-bat. To improve this, you need to hit the ball harder and farther.

Incorporate strength training into your routine, particularly exercises that enhance your upper body and core strength. This can help you generate more power in your swing.

Practice Hit Placement

It’s not just about hitting the ball hard but also about placing your hits strategically. Aim to hit the ball where the fielders aren’t. Practice hitting all fields to increase your chances of getting on base and scoring extra bases.

Study Pitchers

Understanding the tendencies and strategies of the pitchers you’re facing can help you anticipate what’s coming next. Study their patterns and adjust your approach at the plate accordingly.

Improving your OPS is not an overnight task. It requires consistent practice, smart decision-making, and physical preparation. Remember, baseball is a game of statistics, but it’s also a game of strategy.

By focusing on these key areas, you can significantly enhance your OPS and contribute more to your team’s success.

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The Future of OPS in Baseball Statistics and Analytics

As you delve deeper into baseball statistics, you might wonder what is in store for the future of OPS. As things stand, OPS has a significant role to play in the future of baseball analytics.

It is evolving to accommodate complex evaluative models, offering more in-depth insights into player performance.

Role of OPS

The role of OPS (On-Base Plus Slugging) in baseball statistics is becoming increasingly influential. It’s a staple in sabermetrics, the advanced baseball analysis through objective, empirical evidence.

Compared to traditional stats like batting averages, OPS provides a more comprehensive picture of a player’s offensive contributions by combining on-base and slugging percentages.

Future Developments

In the future, we could see OPS being tailored to incorporate more situational factors. For instance, it might consider the specifics of each ballpark, which can significantly impact batting performance.

Adapting OPS to account for ballpark factors can help teams make more informed decisions about player trades, lineup optimization, and game strategies.

Advanced Metrics

OPS could also pave the way for more advanced metrics that offer even more precise evaluations of player performance.

For example, there’s potential for metrics that merge OPS with other stats, like Wins Above Replacement (WAR), to create a more holistic evaluation tool for hitters.


In conclusion, OPS is a valuable metric in baseball that gives a holistic view of a player’s offensive capabilities.

By combining both on-base percentage and slugging percentage, it provides a more comprehensive look at a player’s ability to get on base, as well as their ability to hit for power.


  • On-base percentage (OBP) measures how frequently a player reaches base. It takes into account hits, walks, and hit-by-pitches.
  • Slugging Percentage (SLG) assesses a hitter’s power by weighing total bases achieved against at-bats.
  • The higher the OPS, the more effective the player is considered offensively.

Though imperfect and not considering all aspects of a player’s offensive game, OPS is still useful for comparing players and evaluating overall offensive performance.

It’s one of the many statistics baseball enthusiasts and experts use to assess players and make strategic decisions.

So, the next time you watch a game or discuss baseball stats, remember the importance of OPS and what it reveals about a player’s skill at bat.

Note: Like all statistics, OPS should be used with other metrics for a more complete picture of a player’s performance. It does not account for speed on the bases, batting average with runners in scoring position, or fielding abilities. It’s just one piece of the puzzle.

In the world of baseball, knowledge is power. The more you know and understand the game’s intricate stats and metrics, the richer your experience will be.

Whether you’re a casual fan, a fantasy league participant, or an aspiring professional, delving into the details of OPS can give you a deeper appreciation for the sport and the immense skill required to excel at it.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is OPS in Baseball?

OPS stands for On-Base Plus Slugging, a popular statistic used in baseball to measure a player’s overall offensive performance. It combines a player’s on-base percentage (OBP) and slugging average (SLG) into one number, providing a comprehensive view of their ability to reach base and hit for power.

How is OPS Calculated?

The OPS formula is simple; it is calculated by adding a player’s on-base percentage (OBP) and slugging average (SLG). The equation looks like this: OPS = OBP + SLG.

Why is OPS Important in baseball?

OPS is important because it considers players’ ability to get on base and their power at the plate. It provides a more comprehensive measure of offensive performance than traditional statistics like batting average or home runs.

Is a 700 OPS Good?

An OPS of .700 is considered fairly good in baseball. It puts a player in the top third of all hitters in Major League Baseball and can score significant points in fantasy baseball. It is also above the league average, which was .729 in 2023. While not elite, an OPS of .700 is still desirable and can contribute to a team’s success in terms of runs scored.

Do Walks Count for OPS?

Yes, walks count for OPS. OPS (On-base Plus Slugging) is a statistic in baseball that combines a player’s on-base percentage (OBP) and slugging percentage (SLG). OBP includes walks as part of the calculation, so they are inherently counted in the OBP component of OPS. Therefore, walks are a factor in the OPS calculation, as they contribute to a player’s on-base ability and, subsequently, their overall offensive performance.

What is the Significance of a 1.000 OPS?

A 1.000 OPS is considered outstanding in baseball. Players who consistently achieve a 1.000 OPS are often among the league’s best hitters, as they excel at reaching base and hitting for power.

How Does OPS Compare to Other Statistics?

OPS is often regarded as a more advanced statistic than traditional measures like batting average or slugging percentage. It provides a complete picture of a player’s offensive abilities, particularly in power and on-base skills.

What is the League Average OPS in Baseball?

The league average OPS in baseball can vary from season to season, but it typically falls around .750. However, it’s important to note that OPS varies significantly across different positions and eras, so comparing a player’s OPS to the league average can provide more context about their performance.

Who Holds the Record for the Highest OPS in Baseball History?

According to Baseball Almanac, the highest OPS in baseball history is held by Babe Ruth, who achieved an incredible 1.164 OPS in his career. Ruth’s ability to get on base and hit for power makes him one of the greatest offensive players ever.

Can a Player Have Better Stats Than OPS Alone?

A player can certainly have better stats than OPS alone. OPS is a useful statistic for capturing an overall view of a player’s offensive performance. Still, it doesn’t consider other important factors like stolen bases, situational hitting, or defensive contributions.

Is OPS an Official Statistic in Major League Baseball (MLB)?

While OPS is not an official statistic recognized by MLB, it is widely used and accepted by baseball analysts and fans.

Who Are Some of the Career Leaders in OPS?

Some of the top career leaders in OPS include Babe Ruth, Ted Williams, Barry Bonds, and Lou Gehrig.

Is OPS the Same as the Batting Average?

OPS (On-base Plus Slugging) is different from the batting average. The batting average measures the rate at which a batter gets a hit. At the same time, OPS combines a player’s on-base percentage (OBP) and slugging percentage (SLG) to provide a more comprehensive measure of their offensive performance. While batting average focuses solely on hits, OPS considers a player’s ability to get on base and hit for power, making it a more inclusive metric for evaluating a player’s overall offensive contribution.

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